Active and Passive Voice

Convert the following sentence into passive voice

Answer: Ramu is helped by Ravi. (Simple present)

Answer: Ramu is being helped by Ravi. (Present continuous)

Answer: Ramu has been helped by Ravi. (Present perfect)

Answer: We have been helped by Ravi. (Present perfect)

Answer: Ramu was helped by Ravi. (Simple past)

Answer: Ramu is being helped by Ravi. (Past continuous)

Answer: Ramu had been helped by Ravi. (Past perfect)

Answer: Ramu will be helped by Ravi. (Simple future)

Answer: Ramu will be being helped by Ravi. (Future Con)

Answer: Ramu will have been helped by Ravi. (Future perfect)

Answer: Time is not wasted by us. (Negative)

Answer: We were not invited by her. (Negative)

Answer: We are not helped by him. (Negative)

Answer: A song is being sung by Sahana

Parts of Speech

Name the parts of speech of an underlined word

Answer: adjective

Answer: adjective

Answer: adjective

Answer: adverb

Answer: adjective

Answer: adverb

Answer: noun

Answer: noun

Answer: adjective

Answer: adjective

Answer: adjective

Answer: adverb

Answer: noun

Answer: adverb

Paragraph Correcting

Find out the errors in the paragraphs below and correct them.

a. grabbed b. frantically

a. exhibit
b. How wonderful it is! (Exclamatory mark)

a. covered
b. for me? (Question mark)

a. piece
b. suddenly

a. arrives
b. Chinnaswami

a. lost
b. and (not ‘but’)

a. rose (not rise)
b. hear (not ‘here’)

a. considered
b. novelists

a) deeply
b. experiments

Framing Questions

Frame wh- questions to make the underlined words as answers

Answer: What is the profession of Mahesh?

Answer: Where does \ Where did Girija live?

Answer: When does Raju go to Mumbai?

Answer: How do they come?

Answer: Why did Kiran go to Shimoga?

Answer: When will Ravi paint it?

Answer: Where did the old man sit?

Answer: How often did he call me?

Answer: How much rice did she buy?

Answer: How did they win the match?

Answer: Where does Nagaraj have an interview?

Answer: How does Latha sing?

Question Tags

Positive Sentences

1. It is raining, isn’t it?
2. He is wise, isn’t he?
3. She has gone out, hasn’t she?
4. He will come tomorrow, won’t he?

1.I speak English, don’t I?
2. Ramu drives a car, doesn’t he?
3. She sings a song, doesn’t she?
4. They play cricket, don’t they?
5. He went out, didn’t he?
6. Raghu broke the glass, didn’t he? (M 2018)
7. I am your teacher, aren’t I?
8. Ramu and I can do it, can’t we?
9. She speaks English, doesn’t she? (Prep2020)
10. The students have come back from the tour, haven’t they? (June 2018)

Negative Sentences

1. He is not alert, is he?
2. She can’t sing, can she?
3. He is never late, is he?
4. He does not go, does he?
5. They did not come, did they?
6. They won’t go, will they?
7. She never sings, does she?
8. They do not play, do they?


1. She went to Hubli to buy a car. (to buy)
2. I tried to lift the box. (to lift)
3. Don’t forget to make some sweet. (to make) (J2018)
4. I saw him cross the road. (cross – bare infinitive)
5. He saw the plane land. (land – bare infinitive)
6. He made me walk 5 km. (walk- bare infinitive)

Language Functions

1. May I come in? (asking permission)
2. He can run 100 meters in 9 seconds. (ability)
3. Will you please help me to prepare the speech? (request) (June 2018)
4. Could I have the details, please? (request)
5. He might come at any moment. (possibility)
6. Yes, you may go now. (giving permission)
7. How about a cup of coffee? (suggestion)
8. You are absolutely right. (agreement)
9. Get up early in the morning. (advice)
10. Shamu, please tell a story. (request)
11. Go to the sixth row and the book is on the third shelf. (giving direction)
12. Would you agree with this point? (seeking opinion)
13. Don’t worry. I will give you my notes. (offering help)
14. Can I go home an hour early today? (asking permission)
15. Ask Ramu he might help you. (possibility)
16. It may rain today. (possibility) (Prep2020)
17. Practice well, you will do better next time. (Advice) (March 2019)

If – clause (Type III)

Rule: The verb in the if-clause is in past perfect tense the verb in the main clause is in the conditional perfect tense (had + past participle --- would have\ could have\ might have + past participle)

1. If you had told me earlier, I would have arranged a vehicle.
2. If you had attended the remedial classes, you would have understood maths well.
3. If I had bought my camera, we would have taken some photographs.
4. If you had gone to the station early, you would not have missed the train.
5. If you had not got more marks, you could not have got a seat in the college.
6. If you had sung well, you would have won the first prize.
7. If you had worked harder, you would have got a seat in the college.
8. If Satish had not lost the power of hearing, he would not have become an artist.

Degrees of Comparison

There are 3 types – Superlative, comparative and positive.
1. Superlative: First noun + verb (is \ was ) + the + adjective in superlative form +second noun
Ex – Banglore is the costliest city in India.
2. Comparative: First noun + verb + adjective in comparative + than any other + second noun
Ex – Banglore is costlier than any other city in India.
3. Positive: No other + second noun + verb + as adjective in positive form + as + first noun
Ex – No other city in India is as costly as Banglore.

Change into other degrees

Comparative –Asia is bigger than any other continent in the world.
Positive – No other continent in the world is as big as Asia.

Superlative – Virat Kohli is the most popular cricketer.
Positive – No other cricketer is as popular as Virat Kohli.

Superlative – Don Anselmo was the oldest man in the village.
Comparative – Don Anselmo was older than any other man in the village.

Positive – No other state in India is as literate as Kerala.
Comparative – Kerala is more literate than any other state in India.

Superlative – Iron is the most useful metal.
Comparative - Iron is more useful than any other metal.

Too ..... to and so ..... that ...... not

too ...... to :
Rule – Noun \ pronoun + verb + too + adjective \ adverb + to + verb
Ex – The old man was too weak to walk.

So ...... that ...... not :
Rule – noun\ pronoun + verb + so + adjective \ adverb + that + pronoun + can not \ could not + verb.
Ex – The old man was so weak that he could not walk.

Change in to too .... to and so..... that ...... not

It is too cold to go out.
It is so cold that I can not go out.

The bag is too heavy for me to lift.
The bag is so heavy that I cannot lift it.

Rearrangement of Sentences

Rearrange the words into a meaningful sentence

Answer: Are you ready to go on a trip?

Answer: What a cruel animal tiger is!

Answer: We are going to meet the president.

Answer: Pedestrians are requested to keep off the grass.

Answer: What a fine gentleman he is!

Answer: What naughty behaviour he has!

Answer: What do you want?

Answer: How do you come to school?

Answer: Don’t pluck flowers in the garden.

Answer: How beautiful the rose is!

Answer: How many sisters do you have?

Answer: Turn off your mobile while driving the vehicle.

Noun-Verb Usage

Use the following words as ‘noun’ and ‘verb’

1. Smile (n) I have a cute smile.
Smile (v) I smile at him
2. Play (n) I am at play.
play(v) I play cricket.
3. Water (n) I drink water.
water (v) I water the plants
4. Advice(n) I gave some advice.
advise (v) I advise him.
5. Practice (n) I am at practice.
practise (v) I practise yoga.
6. Colour(n) I like red colour
colour(v) I colour the picture.
7. Laugh (n) His jokes make us laugh.
laugh(v) I laugh at him.
8. Walk (n) I went for a walk.
walk (v) I walk fast.
9. Murder(n) I saw a murder.
murder(v) He murdered his enemy
10. Cry (n) I made a terrible cry.
cry (v) I cry loudly.
11. Cheat (n) He is a cheat.
cheat (v) He cheats me. (Prep2020)
12. Conduct (n) He has good conduct
conduct(v) I conduct an experiment.