How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners


Did you know? The word "résumé" comes from the French word "résumé," meaning "summary." While it is unclear who invented the résumé, some say it may have been the famous artist, Leonard Da Vinci. 
Interesting, isn't it? Da Vinci is the first recorded person to use one. In 1482, DaVinci wrote a letter to the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, in an attempt to gain his patronage and support.

Da Vinci's letter listed his skills and experience to his potential patron, the same thing we all do in the modern world to our potential employers. Little did he know that he was starting a process that would continue until today and become an integral part of the hiring process!
In this post, you will learn how to make an effective résumé and CV step-by-step.

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What is a résumé?

A résumé is a document used and created by a person to present their background, skills, accomplishments, etc. They can be used for a variety of purposes, but most often they are used to secure new employment.
Many students write their Résumé without giving it any thought. Some even write it as a list of everything they have done since they were born. No wonder when an employer sees such an incoherent set of information in front of him/her. He/she is not at all inclined to consider such candidates any further. 
Your résumé not only tells your employer about your skills and qualifications, but the way it is written also speaks volumes about your attitude, personality, and what you are in real life. In short, your résumé is your first chance to impress an employer, and we all know the saying "first impression is the last impression." This brings the question of what the purpose of a résumé is and how to write a good résumé that stands out.

What is the purpose of a résumé?

The purpose of a résumé is to get you shortlisted for an interview. That's all. Once you understand this, writing a great résumé becomes simpler.
Before writing anything on your résumé, ask yourself, "Would this help you get shortlisted for the interview?" If the answer is yes, write it, or else don't.

What gets you shortlisted for an interview?

Primarily, two things. First, is your résumé easy to read and make a good visual first impression? That is the presentation of your résumé. 

Second, does your résumé convey the relevant skills and experience effectively? That is the content of your résumé. These two important questions should be considered a top priority while creating your résumé.

How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

Let's see how to make a résumé step by step. First, let me tell you about the different parts of a résumé and what you should and should not include in a good résumé.

We know that making your résumé for the first time may feel overwhelming. But don't worry, we will hold your hand till the end. Making a good résumé requires a good amount of patience and great attention to detail. Unless you are a creative person who enjoys designing résumés, the whole process may feel a bit tiring and even boring to you. But the good news is that you only have to make a great résumé once in your life. After that, you can always edit or add more details and use them for the rest of your career. So think of it as a one-time investment that will be beneficial to you for the rest of your career. Isn't that great? All right, let's start and see what makes a great résumé.

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Template Résumé

Take a look at the above template résumé. Doesn't it look neat and clean? Don't you want something similar for yourself? You do, right? Okay, let's learn the different things that go into making a résumé this neat and clean. The first thing that you notice in this résumé is the heading section and what it contains.


How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Resume Heading

The header section contains your name, contact details such as your phone number and email ID, and links to your portfolio, such as Github, your play store account, your Behance portfolio, or even your LinkedIn profile. But one thing you should keep in mind is to make sure that the heading section does not look cluttered. If you have more than one portfolio for your link to share on your résumé, then you can make a separate section for them instead of putting all of them in the heading section.

Do's and Don'ts

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Do's and Don't of Heading Section

What are the things you should keep in mind while making the heading section of your résumé? First of all, you should always use a professional email ID such as It looks professional and creates a good impression.

What is an example of an unprofessional email ID? For example, or I'm sure most of us would have created at least one email ID like this at some point in our lives. but please do not use it on your résumé. It does not give a very good impression.

Do not include a photograph of yourself in the heading section. Some students do it, but it's completely unnecessary and never required unless the company has specifically asked for it.

Many people also mention their age and gender in the heading, though it's not advisable to include such personal information unless the company has specifically asked for it in the job description.

Education Details

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Education Details

This section contains all your educational qualifications from the 10th standard onwards. It should include the time period, the name of the institute, the name of the degree, and your academic performance.

Do's and Don'ts

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Do's and Don'ts of Education Section

Let's take a look at what you should keep in mind when creating your education section.

Always mention the details in reverse chronological order. What do I mean by that? You should mention the most recent details first.

For example, if you are pursuing a B-Tech degree, include your B-Tech degree at the top of your résumé. 12th afterwards, followed by the 10th standard.

While mentioning your academic performance, do not mention your semester-wise academic performance. The aggregate of your CGPA percentage is enough. Why? You might ask. Because it unnecessarily makes your résumé look cluttered and messy.

Similarly, do not mention all the subjects that you have studied for your graduation in your résumé. If need be, mention only the subjects that are relevant to the job profile that you are applying for. Do not mention all of them.

Internship(s)/Work Experience

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Internship(s)/Work Experience

The most important section of your résumé is your internship(s) or work experience.

If you have done internships before, that is practical proof in front of an employer that you have the skills and can do the job. This is why it is important to do a good job of writing this section. If you haven't done any internship but have volunteer experience with an NGO or a non-profit organization, then you can also mention that in your résumé. It demonstrates to a potential employer that you like to be active in the community. The more well-rounded you are, the better you will appear on paper. Volunteering is also a great way to network, so there is a business aspect to it as well.

So, what should this section contain? It should include the name of the organisation you interned with, the profile, and the time period for which you did the internship.

It also should include a brief description of the actual work you did. Do not leave this blank, do not write a generic description, and do not write a few words. Write a detailed description of the work you completed.

For example, if you worked on a technical profile such as web development, don't simply say "I built a website." But also mention the technologies and frameworks that you used, the challenges you faced, what you did to overcome them, and the rewards you received.

Similarly, for a non-technical profile such as content writing, don't just mention that you wrote content, but also provide a description of the different types of content that you may have worked on. such as blogs, articles, topics, or the area of your content that you worked on, such as scientific articles, fashion blogs, and so on. You may also mention details like if you worked on the company's social media platforms or their SEO.

All of this together gives the recruiter a very good impression of the actual work that you may have done in the internship and what extra skills you have.

Do's and Don'ts

How to Make a Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Internship(s) - Do's and Don'ts

What are the things that you should keep in mind for this section? Like education, this section can also be written in reverse chronological order. That is, you can mention your most recent internship at the beginning, but it is not always required.

You can always customise this section based on the profile of the internship, or the job that you are applying for.

For example, let's say you have done two internships, one in management and one in technical. If you are applying for a technical job, mention the technical internship first, since it has more relevance to this particular job. Or if you are applying for a management job, or a non-technical job, mention the management internship first.

As we discussed before, always give a good and specific description of the work that you did during the internship. Do not leave it blank, and do not give a generic description. Most importantly, do not make any grammatical or spelling mistakes in your internship description. You can use a number of spell checker tools, such as Grammarly, MS Word Spell Checker, etc., that are available to you.

There is absolutely no excuse why your résumé should contain any grammatical or spelling mistakes.
Similarly, avoid any technical or industry-specific jargon in your résumé. make it simple for a normal person to read and understand.


How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Project(s) Section

This is also an important section of your résumé because this is one way of demonstrating any academic project work that you may have done independently and what you are capable of. This should include the title of your project, the duration for which you did this project, and again, a brief description that is specific and rich in details. If your project resulted in a publication, or if there is an online link to the project, please do mention that.


How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Skills Section

In this section, you can mention any specific skills that you may have that are relevant to the profile that you are applying for. You can mention two types of skills in your résumé:

1. Technical/Hard Skills 
2. Soft Skills

Let us discuss in detail both the types of skills and how you can mention them in your résumé.

1. Technical/Hard Skills

What do we mean by hard/technical skills? Hard skills are the technical skills or knowledge that you may have gained while doing your graduation, an internship, a workshop, seminar, training, etc.

A lot of students think that only candidates from an engineering background would have technical skills, which is not true. Students from a non-engineering background may also possess technical skills. Let's understand this better with examples. 

A good example of hard skills for students from a technical background could be any programming languages or software, such as Java, Android, etc., that they may have learned during their education, or any professional training course. 

From a non-technical or non-engineering background, a few examples of hard skills could be Microsoft Excel, Tally (if they have taken an accounting class), or if they have done a certificate course, or online training in a foreign language, etc.

Other examples can be graphic design, legal drafting, policy drafting, instructional design, etc. So this section on hard skills can be relevant for anyone, whether you are from a technical background or a non-technical one.

2. Soft Skills

Now let's understand what soft skills are.

Soft skills are the personal habits and traits that shape how you work on your own and with others. Effective communication, for example, is a key soft skill that many employers see. Some other soft skills may include time management, interpersonal skills, active listening, leadership skills, problem-solving skills, etc.

How would you assess which soft skills you have? It is actually quite simple. 

Just look back at the past experiences of your life. For example, have you ever managed a team of people during your college fest and organised something? If yes, that highlights your leadership skills, and you can mention that in your résumé.

Similarly, have you ever convinced your teacher to not give you homework, or your whole class to go on a mass bunk? If so, this showcases your convincing skills.

So think of the kind of person you are and what soft skills you possess. Are you very good at time management? Or are you always able to come up with solutions to a problem? Asking yourself such questions will help you write the soft skills section well.

However, please avoid mentioning any unverifiable skills such as being hard-working, dependable, committed, etc. on your résumé. And make sure you mention only those skills here that are verifiable and can be supported with concrete examples because if you don't have any concrete examples, the recruiter will not be able to evaluate you.

In the skills section, it is advisable that you mention your proficiency level as well. That is, you should clearly define the extent of your knowledge of a particular subject or skill.

Levels of Skill Proficiency

Levels of Skill Proficiency
Level of Skill Proficiency

The three levels of skill proficiency are beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Now let us understand what these three levels stand for. 


A beginner is someone who has a very basic understanding of the skill. What does that mean? That means you have exposure to the skill and understand basic concepts, but you lack experience.

You have learnt a foreign language. In this case, if your knowledge and vocabulary of that language is limited to a few essential objects, family names, and core action or relational verbs, but you cannot frame meaningful or difficult sentences using them, then you are a beginner.


An intermediate level is when someone has the knowledge of skills between a beginner and an advanced level. That means you have experience in working and carrying out a particular skill, but you don't understand advanced concepts.

When you develop a good knowledge of the vocabulary of a language and can frame sentences using them, but still need support to speak or write the language fluently, then you are an intermediate learner.


The word "advanced" is used to describe a highly developed skill level. If you have solid experience and training in a particular skill and also understand advanced concepts, then you can mention your level in it as advanced.

If you have a strong command of the language's vocabulary, you can construct meaningful sentences and speak and write fluently without the assistance of a teacher.

Similarly, you can assess your level of proficiency in a particular skill based on your level of knowledge and include it in your résumé.

Do's and Don'ts

How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Skills - Do's and Don'ts

Let us take a look at the Do's and Don'ts for effectively writing the skill section.

List the skills you are most experienced with first. That is, place the skills that you consider to have an advanced level of experience before the skills with which you consider yourself a beginner. This can help draw an employee's attention to your most valued skills before they see the skills that you are less experienced in.

You should always put your hard skills before your soft skills. This helps employers see the job-related skills first. After you have listed the job-specific skills that you have to offer, you can include the skills that are directly related to your personality and work ethic. So the hard skills come first, and then the soft skills. Try to maintain a balance between the different levels of skills that you mention on your résumé.

Listing yourself at an advanced level in every skill might not seem realistic to employers, but at the same time, make sure you don't undervalue your skill level as well.

Mention the skills that reflect the internship or job position. What we mean by that is, to review the job description carefully before applying for a job or an internship. First, highlight the skills required as per the job description.

For example, if the job description says that they need someone who is good with backend languages and you have knowledge of both back-end and front-end languages, then you should mention your list of back-end languages first, and front-end languages after that.

What you should not do is include the things that are very common, such as knowledge of Windows 10, or mention a personality trait such as I am sincere, hardworking, polite, etc. This section is meant for specific skills only.

Training and Workshops

In general, companies give less weightage to training and workshops compared to internships and projects. However, they are nonetheless significant. Let us see what we can mention under this section.
You may include a brief description of no more than one or two lines, as well as the amount of time you spent on this workshop or training. Also, mention any online training or courses that you may have done in this section.

Do's and Don'ts

What are the Do's and Don'ts we should keep in mind while writing this section?

What you should definitely avoid is filling this section with too many irrelevant or short-duration workshops that are only for a day or half a day. As we discussed before, this doesn't really add a lot of weight to your résumé, like internships or projects. You can mention these things in reverse chronological order or customise them as per the internship or job-specific requirements that you are applying for.

Achievements and Awards

How to Make an Impressive Résumé in 2022: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

In this section, you can mention all the major achievements, such as awards received, competitions won, major positions of responsibility that you may have handled, or any academic distinction that you may have received.

This section is meant to highlight all the achievements in your life to date. But again, do not mention insignificant achievements that are really, really old or from school days.

Let's say, for example, if you are applying for a technical profile such as mobile app development, in that case, if you had won a skating championship in your school when you were in class 8th or 9th, it may not add any value to your résumé. But on the other hand, if you have won a debate competition, or a bond meetup quiz competition in class 12 or your college, and you are applying for a marketing internship, then this achievement may help you highlight your convincing and communication skills, which are essential for a marketing profile.

Therefore, mentioning the achievements connected to the profile you are applying for would be helpful. A good way to test this is to put yourself in the company's position and ask, "Would you really care about this achievement on an applicant's résumé yourself?" If the answer to that question is no, then do not mention that achievement of yours on the résumé.

Additional Details

Finally, the last section is additional information, which is meant to cover everything else that you want to convey to your employer but has not been covered in the sections above. This will include things such as co-curricular or extracurricular activities that you may have participated in at your school or college. It may include some minor positions of responsibility that you held but did not mention in any of the preceding sections. It can also contain your hobbies and interests. But again, keep this really, really short. Include this section only if you have anything relevant to mention.


With this, we are done with all the different sections that a résumé should ideally contain. What is important to note is that a résumé may or may not contain all the sections.

For example, if you have not won any awards that are relevant to your résumé, you can skip that section, or if you don't have any co-curricular activities to mention, then leave it out.

Just try to be honest and write what is applicable to you!

A Bonus Tip!

Did You Know?

Did you know résumés can also be colourful and have graphics? Yes. It is no longer required for your résumé to be conventional. This depends, of course, on your industry, though.

For example, a candidate from an artistic field such as advertising can enhance his or her résumé through the use of clean design, colour, etc., or a songwriter can easily make a song out of their résumé. Such pieces immediately catch the eye of the recruiting managers. {alertInfo}

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