ENK Level 2: How to Teach Grammar Concepts in English Nali-Kali

Background

Foundational literacy is the basis of all future learning for a child. Not achieving basic foundational skills of being able to read with comprehension, writing, and doing basic mathematics operations, leaves the child unprepared for the complexities of the curriculum beyond grade 3.

ENK Level 2: How to Teach Grammar Concepts in English Nali-Kali

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English Nali-Kali's L&S Curriculum and the NEP

In the document entitled NIPUN Bharat (National Initiative for Proficiency in reading with Understanding and Numeracy) released by the MoE in April 2021, the key components of literacy are as follows: 

a) Vocabulary - understanding the meaning of words in the language.

b) Phonological Awareness that includes competencies of word awareness, rhyme awareness, and awareness of sounds within words.

c) Decoding that includes competencies of print awareness, akshara knowledge, and word recognition.

d) Reading Comprehension including competencies of understanding and interpreting texts.

e) Reading Fluency i.e. the ability to read a text with accuracy, speed, expression, and comprehension that allows children to make meaning from the text. 

f) Concept about Print - understanding of print direction and book handling.

g) Writing that includes the competencies of writing aksharas and words as well as writing for expression.

h) Culture of Reading that Involves the motivation to engage with a wide variety of books and other reading materials.

The L&S curriculum of ENK consists of 6 segments -concept presentation, TPR, Storytelling, Conversation, Rhymes and Language games which supports vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading fluency, and sets the stage for an interest in reading.

Related: Download ENK Level-2 Complete PDF Kit

These ENK segments focus on different aspects of language – concepts and storytelling focus on listening and understanding and learning new vocabulary and structure, rhymes and conversation focus on producing and practising spoken language skills, TPR on following instructions and language games on practising and consolidating vocabulary.

Two of the Listening and Speaking curriculum segments are most related to the NEP goals of reading with comprehension. These are the segment of concept presentation that focuses on introducing and improving vocabulary and segments in NEP goals. It, therefore, focuses on the two segments that further reading comprehension – concept presentation and storytelling.

Concept Presentation

Concept presentation has two major parts – the first introduces the English words for words /concepts that children are already familiar with. This follows a bilingual method where new information is scaffolded on the language knowledge that children already know -allowing children to focus on the language.

Concept Presentation
Concept Presentation

The second part of the concept presentation focuses on Grammar which explains informally the grammar rules that govern the language especially masculine and feminine possessive pronouns, singular and plural nouns and verbs, tenses (present and past).

The theme-based curriculum ensures that theme-related vocabulary moves from simple to complex as does the grammar – which also allows for a smooth transition from a simpler concept to the more advanced ones in a whole classroom system.

Classroom Management in Concept Presentation

In Level 2, the teacher will have students at 2 levels. As this is a whole class activity, students of Level 2 continue to sit in the same semicircle as students of Level 1.  Most children in Level 2 will remember most of the basic vocabulary and grammar taught in Level 1 especially if it has been reinforced over the year. So, the first part of the lesson with Level 1 will serve as a revision for Level 2 students and is common for both levels. 
 
After 20 minutes of the class, ask the Level 2 children to step forward and introduce the new concepts. The concepts taught for Level 2 students are greater in detail, so children of Level 1 will also listen to what is being taught and learn the concepts taught to older students.  The process of instruction remains the same as Level 1.

Learning Continuum in Concept Presentation

Learning Continuum in Concept Presentation
 Learning Continuum in Concept Presentation

Concept presentation, like the other segments, follows the learning continuum. So the teacher finds the transition from level 1 to level 2 to be fairly easy.  The teacher card has all the instructions to be followed.

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Teaching Grammar Concepts

The Bellary Study points out that both students and teachers have a problem understanding and grammar rules and applying it to various situations. Many teachers do not understand the significance of the grammar card. It is therefore necessary to reconsider how the grammar concepts have to be taught in both Level 1 and Level 2.

Teaching Grammar Concepts
Teaching Grammar Concepts

Teaching through games: at present most of the language games are focused on vocabulary. Teachers can however consider the possibility of adding games to reflect the grammar concept.

Teaching through conversations: altering some of the conversations to include an element of grammar can be another possibility so that children answer two questions involving possessive pronouns or tenses or singular and plural.

Teaching through rhymes: Many teachers are musically minded and would be able to grasp grammar rules if these are explained through rhymes in their mother tongue. Any of these activities can be used in addition to or to replace the grammar card.

Examples of Grammar Exercises

Examples of Grammar Exercises

Game: “Whose family member”? (use of apostrophe 's')
  • Divide the class into groups with about 6 students in each group with an equal number of boys and girls.
  • Give each student in group 1 one flashcard with a family member.
  • Each student stands in front of the class holds up the card and says this is my ------------(name of a family member) and puts down the card.
  • Now, call any student from group 2 and ask him/her to pick up a card and ask “Who is this”
  • The group 2 student answers “this is Sita’s mother” or “this is Ramu’s father” etc.
  • Every correct answer earns the group a point.
  • Repeat the game with the roles of groups 1 and 2 reverse
  • Every correct answer earns the group a point.

Conversation “What is the name”?

By the time students have reached theme 2 students at both levels have completed the first conversation circle on “what is your name”.

This conversation circle can replace the grammar card in Milestone 2 after completing the concept presentation cards introducing: his, her, their, and our.

  • Divide the class into smaller conversation groups of 4 students (2 boys and 2 girls).
  • Each student takes turns to ask another student – what is your name? what is my name? what is his name? what is her name? what are their names? What are our names (pointing to self and neighbour)?
  • Every student gets a chance to ask and answer the above questions. Once the game is demonstrated, students can ask and answer the question while the teacher moves around checking.
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Credits: Samagra Shikshana Karnataka and UNICEF{alertInfo}
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